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代寫assignment案例-The Current Canadian Political Parties and Climate in Rel

文章類型:assignment 發布時間:2020-01-03

加拿大是一個多元文化的聯邦國家。自成立以來,加拿大形成了自己獨特的政治體系。在政黨及其執政方面,已經形成了三個主要政黨,即自由黨,保守黨和新民主黨,自由黨和保守黨輪流執政。本文著眼于三個政黨在意識形態和政策上的差異,以及這些差異與自由黨在2015年獲勝所致的加拿大在加拿大政治氣氛中的角色變化之間的關系。
 
加拿大的意識形態分為三個主要類別。首先是相對中立的自由主義,它追求個人主義的自由和平等。現任執政黨自由黨是自由主義的代表黨。根據他們的政治政策,自由黨認為國家對人民的自由發展具有積極影響,國家應維護加拿大境內所有公民和文化的權益(Clarkson等,2012)。 。根據關于自由主義的演講,政府應尊重私營部門,但在必要時也需要通過國家干預來促進社會的整體利益。
 
第二流是左翼的社會民主主義,它追求集體主義的自由和平等,并強調國家的干預和功能。加拿大社會民主主義的代表黨是新民主黨。從黨的政策的角度來看,很明顯,它們支持混合經濟,并認為公共部門應規范私營部門,并在必要時直接控制經濟活動(“新民主黨”,第d,第1款)。
 
第三個主要意識形態是右翼保守主義。加拿大的保守主義分為“傳統”保守主義和進步保守主義。前者主張減少國家對個人的約束,最大程度地減少國家干預,反對政府和社會制度的根本性變化,并追求自由市場的經濟框架。它認為政府不應隨意干預市場的運作,而??應讓資本市場自發地決定社會財富和權力的分配,提倡個人主義,并認為人與人之間的不平等是自然的(Christian,2006)。漸進的保守主義強調集體價值與個人主義的平行性,并重視省合作的下單 ,傳統和穩定性。前進步保守主義的代表黨是加拿大進步保守黨,但在2003年,“它與加拿大聯盟合并組成了加拿大保守黨”(“加拿大進步保守黨”,第n.d段,第3段)。
 
從上面對加拿大的三種主要政治思想的詳細分析中可以看出,這三個政黨對加拿大各部門,特別是在經濟和國家干預領域,持有不同的政治觀點。實際上,正是保守黨和自由黨對經濟問題的不同政治觀點導致了加拿大政治局勢的變化。
Canada is a multi-cultural federal country. Since its establishment, Canada has formed its own unique political system. In terms of the political parties and their governance, three major political parties, namely the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party, and the New Democratic Party, have been formed, in which the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party take turns in governing. This article focuses on the differences in ideology and policy among the three political parties, as well as how these differences have been related to the changes of the role of the state in Canada's political climate caused by the victory of the Liberal Party in 2015.
 
Canada's ideology is divided into three main groups. The first is relatively neutral liberalism, which pursues the freedom and equality of individualism. The Liberal Party, the current ruling party, is the representative party of liberalism. According to their political policy, the Liberal Party believes that the state has a positive effect on the free development of their people and that the state should safeguard the interests and rights of all citizens and cultures existing in Canada (Clarkson et al., 2012). According to the lecture on liberalism, the government should respect the private sector, but it also needs to promote the overall interests of society through state intervention when necessary. 
 
The second stream is the left-wing social democracy which pursues the freedom and equality of collectivism and emphasizes the intervention and function of the state. The representative party of social democracy in Canada is the New Democratic Party. From the perspective of the party's policy, it is clear that they support the mixed economy and believe that the public sector should regulate the private sector and directly control economic activities when necessary (“New Democratic Party,” n.d, para.1).
 
The third main ideology is right-wing conservatism. Conservatism in Canada is divided into “traditional” conservatism and progressive conservatism. The former advocates reducing the state's restraint on individuals, minimizing state intervention, opposing radical changes in government and social system and pursuing the economic framework of the free market. It holds that the government should not interfere in the operation of the market at will, but let the capital market decide the distribution of social wealth and power spontaneously, advocating individualism, and holding that inequality among human beings is natural (Christian, 2006). Progressive conservatism emphasizes the parallelism of collective value and individualism and attaches importance to the order, tradition and stability of provincial cooperation. The former representative party of progressive conservatism was the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, but in 2003, “it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative Party of Canada” (“Progressive Conservative Party of Canada,” n.d, para.3). 
 
From the above-detailed analysis for three major political ideologies in Canada, it is evident that these three parties have held divergent political views toward various sectors of the country, especially in the field of economics and state intervention. In fact, it is the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party's different political views on economic issues that have led to the change of political situation in Canada.

2015年10月19日,加拿大舉行了第42屆聯邦議會選舉,其中保守黨由自由黨取代,九年后終于在加拿大重新出現了政權移交。自由黨成功地在下議院組建了擁有170多個席位的多數政府。保守黨失去了100個席位,正式成為反對派。新民主黨跌至第三位(Ives,2015)。
 
在選舉期間,經濟已成為辯論的中心因素。在選舉中,保守黨在加拿大對2008年全球金融危機的成功回應中發揮了領導作用,稱自由黨和新民主黨將給加拿大經濟帶來災難(艾夫斯,2015年)。事實上,加拿大銀行體系以其對外國金融危機的高度抗拒能力而聞名,加拿大經濟的快速改善很大程度上歸因于國際油價高企(Ji,2016)。近年來,加拿大高科技產業的發展也缺乏。特別是自2014年下半年以來,世界經濟復蘇乏力以及國際油價和其他商品價格的急劇下跌暴露了加拿大經濟的結構性弊端。 2015年上半年,經濟陷入技術性衰退。保守黨政府做得很少,而且一直強調平衡預算的實施。相反,自由黨建議將年收入超過20萬加元的高收入階層的稅率從29%提高到33%,而中產階級的稅率應從22%至20.5%(Ji,2016)。尤其是在大選的高潮時期,鑒于加拿大當前的經濟衰退,自由黨大膽而果斷地建議在未來三年中每年實施赤字100億加元,并投資1250億加元。未來10年的基礎設施建設投資(Ives,2015)。刺激增長以刺激消費。可以說這次大選是加拿大選民否認保守黨政府的經濟政策,肯定了自由黨的經濟政策。
 
在內部事務和經濟方面,自由黨在不過度強調財政平衡的情況下,將保守黨的傳統減稅市場經濟模式改為其??“干預主義”經濟政策。同時,他們還增加了基礎設施建設和公共財政投資,旨在加強中產階級。在社會政策方面,自由黨開始關注環境保護和氣候變化,并在內閣設立了新的“環境與氣候變化部長”以減少溫室氣體排放(Ji,2016)。自2015年以來,人們可以看到,自由黨放松了移民管制,重視土著居民的利益,增加了對土著教育和基礎設施建設的投資,并支持墮胎和大麻合法化。因此,很明顯,在自由黨的領導下,當前的加拿大政治氣氛處于左翼,側重于重申國家在經濟領域和日常基礎設施中的作用。
On October 19, 2015, Canada held the 42nd federal parliamentary elections, in which the Conservative Party was replaced by the Liberal Party, and the transfer of political power finally reappeared in Canada nine years later. The Liberal Party succeeded in forming a majority government with more than 170 seats in the House of Commons; the Conservative Party lost 100 seats and formally became the opposition; the New Democratic Party dropped to the third place (Ives, 2015). 
 
During the election, the economy had become the central factor of debate. In the election, the Conservative Party boasted its leadership in Canada's successful response to the 2008 global financial crisis, saying that the Liberal Party and the New Democratic Party would bring disaster to the Canadian economy (Ives, 2015). In fact, the Canadian banking system is well known for its high immunity to foreign financial crises, and the rapid improvement of the Canadian economy is largely due to high international oil prices (Ji, 2016). In recent years, the development of Canada's high-tech industry is also lacking. Especially since the second half of 2014, the weak recovery of the world economy and the sharp drop in international oil prices and other commodity prices have exposed the structural drawbacks of the Canadian economy. In the first half of 2015, the economy has fallen into a technical recession. The Conservative government has done little and has always emphasized the implementation of a balanced budget. On the contrary, the Liberal Party has proposed that the tax rate should be increased from 29% to 33% for the high-income class with an annual income of over 200,000 Canadian dollars, while the tax rate for the middle class should be reduced from 22% to 20.5% (Ji, 2016). Especially at the climax of the general election, in view of the current economic downturn in Canada, the Liberal Party has boldly and decisively proposed the implementation of a deficit of 10 billion Canadian dollars annually for the next three years and the investment of 125 billion Canadian dollars in infrastructure construction in the next 10 years (Ives, 2015). Stimulate growth to stimulate consumption. This election can be said that Canadian voters deny the conservative government's economic policy and affirm the liberal party's economic policy.
 
In terms of internal affairs and economy, the Liberal Party has changed the Conservative Party’s traditional market economic model of tax reduction to their "interventionist" economic policy without overemphasizing fiscal balance. At the same time, they also increased infrastructure construction and public financial investment, aiming to strengthen the middle class. Regarding social policy, the Liberal Party began paying attention to environmental protection and climate change and set up a new post of "Minister of Environment and Climate Change" in the Cabinet to reduce greenhouse climate emissions (Ji, 2016). Since 2015, people can see that the Liberal Party has relaxed immigration control, attached importance to the interests of aborigines, increased investment in Aboriginal education and infrastructure construction and supported the legalization of abortion and cannabis. Therefore, it is evident that under the governance of the Liberal Party, the current Canadian political climate is on the left-wing, focusing on reiterating the role of the state in the economic field and the daily infrastructure.
 
 
 
References
Clarkson, S., & Azzi, S., & Mccall, C. (2012, January 17). Liberal Party. Retrieved from .
Christian, W. (2006, February 6). Conservatism. Retrieved from  
Ives, A. (2015). The Canadian general election of 2015: The Liberal victory marks a swing back to the center in Canadian politics. IdeAs Idées dAmériques, (6), Retrieved from .
Ji, L. (2016). The trend of political characteristics and future policy of Canadian political parties after the general election of 2015. Reforms and Opening, (3). DOI 10.16653/j.cnki.32-1034/f.2016.06.032
The editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.) New Democratic Party. Retrieved from
The editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.) Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Retrieved from

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