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美國assignment代寫-壟斷經濟管理

文章類型:assignment 發布時間:2019-09-11

1.開發新藥的成本估計為50億美元
(http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2013/08/11/how-the-staggering-cost-of-inventing-new-drugs-is-shaping-the-future-of-medicine/) ,但往往只有便士生產另一個單位。使用固定成本,平均總成本和邊際成本的概念,清楚地解釋了為什么藥品是自然壟斷。如果您愿意,請使用圖表。為什么國家允許自然壟斷?有什么危險? (10pts)
 
制藥公司具有非常高的固定成本但可變成本低。這是由于基礎設施,工廠的發展以及各種藥物,實驗室以及能夠為各種藥物進行研究和開展研究的專業人員的研發而產生的高成本。除了藥物的機密信息和專利外,所有這些都被視為制藥公司的固定成本。除了數百萬美元的投資外,藥品還需要尋求當地或國際機構的批準才能在市場上銷售藥品。需要在其他實驗和臨床試驗中進行各種實驗和臨床試驗以滿足要求所有這些投資都是進入的障礙,從而鼓勵藥物成為自然壟斷。
 
制藥公司的可變成本非常低,根據產量變化的成本在行業中并不重要。工業中的工人工資,電力使用等都非常低。此外,制藥公司的邊際成本非常低。邊際成本是指生產額外單位貨物的成本。就藥品而言,一旦研發完成,更多藥物的生產成本將變得非常微不足道。這是因為可以使用相同的專利/配方,并且隨著規模經濟,更高的產量降低了平均生產成本,因為可以使用更多的產出來劃分高專利和研發成本。這意味著一旦產量增加,平均總成本就會急劇下降。規模經濟問題非常重要,與藥品公司的利潤相關。
 
壟斷有其自身的優勢。壟斷確保了藥物的持續交付,特別是它具有非常高的前期成本。允許公司作為壟斷企業進行投資和發展,在經濟上是可行的。一旦允許公司成為壟斷企業,他們所做的超常利潤就會鼓勵他們在研發方面投入更多資金,投資新產品/藥品。還有規模經濟的情況。在壟斷的情況下,平均總生產成本顯著降低,因此生產者有可能將成本節約轉嫁給消費者,從而形成更有效的市場。
 
壟斷也有危險,因為一旦他們擁有非常強大的市場力量,他們可以收取更高的價格來提高他們的利潤水平。這將使他們獲得超常利潤。特別是對于制藥公司而言,他們的產品是藥物,對每個人的健康至關重要。因此,壟斷具有固定供應價格的危險,在市場中產生膨脹的價格。由于供應的選擇有限且價格缺乏彈性,這些在市場上可能是危險和不健康的。有時壟斷可能失去創新激勵,因為市場競爭有限。總體而言,行業壟斷存在危險。
 
1.  It costs an estimated $5 billion dollars to develop a new drug
(), but often only pennies to produce another unit.   Using the concepts of fixed cost, average total cost and marginal cost, clearly explain why pharmaceuticals are a natural monopoly.  Use a graph if you like.  Why might it be desirable for the state to allow natural monopolies?  What are the dangers? (10pts)
 
Pharmaceutical companies have a very high fixed cost but low variable cost. This is due to the high cost incurred for basic infrastructure, the development of the factories, and the research and development of various drugs, laboratories, as well as professionals who are able to work and conduct research for various drugs. As well as the confidential information and patents for the drugs, all these are considered as fixed cost for pharmaceutical companies. Other than millions of dollars for the investment, pharmaceuticals also need to seek approvals from local or international authorities for their drugs to be able to sell in the market. Various experiments and clinical trials need to be conducted in other to meet the requirements And all of these investment serves as barriers to entry, thus encouraging pharmaceuticals to become a natural monopoly.
 
Pharmaceuticals companies have a very low variable costs, those costs that changes according to the output are not significant in the industry. Worker’s wages, electricity usages and etc are very low in the industry. Furthermore, pharmaceutical companies have very minimum marginal costs. Marginal cost refers to the cost of producing an additional unit of goods. In the case of pharmaceuticals, once the R&D is completed, the production cost of more drugs will become very insignificant. This is because the same patent/recipe can be used, and with economics of scale, higher production output lowers the average production cost as more outputs can be used to divide the high patent and R&D costs. And this implies that the average total cost reduces sharply once the output increases. The issue of economies of scale is very important and relevant for the profits of pharmaceuticals companies.
 
Monopolies have its own advantages. Monopolies ensures consistent delivery of the drugs, especially it has a very high up-front cost. It is economically feasible for the state to allow companies to invest and grow as monopolies. Once the firms are allowed to become monopolies, the supernormal profits they make encourage them to invest more in R&D, investing new products/drugs. There is also the case of economies of scale. With monopoly, the average total cost of production is significantly reduced, thus there is a possibility of producers passing the cost saving to consumers, leading to a more efficient market.
 
Monopolies can also have dangers as once they have very strong market power, they can charge higher prices to increase their profit level. This will allow them to reap supernormal profits. And especially for pharmaceuticals companies, their products are drugs, essential for everyone’s health. Thus, monopolies have the dangers of fixing price of supply, creates inflated price in the market. Due to limited choice of supply and price inelastic nature of the goods, these can be dangerous and unhealthy in the market. And sometimes monopolies can lose incentives for innovation, as there presents limited competition in the market. Overall, there are dangers for having monopolies in the industry.
 2.閱讀這篇文章:http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/us/the-soaring-cost-of-a-simple-breath.html
繪制專利哮喘藥物的供需曲線。假設生產的邊際成本很低且不變,這通常是藥品的情況。畫出邊際收益曲線(你不必確切。我只是想確保你得到一般的想法)。顯示利潤最大化的壟斷者會產生多少,并解釋這如何減少消費者剩余。顯示圖表上消費者剩余的減少量。如果您愿意,可以使用我提供的excel電子表格。您可以使用Excel來繪制它,但您必須弄清楚如何顯示(或解釋)經濟盈余的無謂損失。
獎勵5分:在壟斷利潤最大化生產水平下,需求彈性會發生什么變化?你能解釋一下為什么會這樣嗎? (10pts)
 
在專利哮喘藥物的情況下,需求是價格無彈性的,因為它是哮喘患者的必需品,并且長期需要它。邊際收益曲線的梯度是需求曲線的一半。在MR = MC時,利潤最大化壟斷產品,這個價格高于平均成本,這確保了它們的最大利潤。

最有效的情況是在P = MC時產生產量,其中價格代表購買者對商品的價值,而邊際成本是產生額外單位商品的額外成本。當意味著這種情況時,就可以實現分配效率。在這種壟斷的情況下,存在無謂損失,由上圖中的三角形ABC表示。而三角形ABD,總無謂損失的上半部分是消費者剩余的損失。由于壟斷市場結構,產量水平降低,價格上漲。
 
 
在壟斷利潤最大化生產水平的情況下,它們在MC = MR產生,存在逆彈性定價規則理論。壟斷永遠不會在需求曲線的非彈性部分上運作。這是因為
MR = P +Q.ΔP/ΔQ= P(1 + Q /P.ΔP/ΔQ)= P(1 + 1 / PED)
當MC = MR時的利潤最大化時,
P(1 + 1 / PED)= MC
(P-MC)/ P = -1 / PED
彈性需求是當PED <-1時,非彈性需求是在-1 <PED <0時。當需求價格無彈性,1 + 1 / PED <0時,企業不會產生損失金額。因此,壟斷從未在其需求的非彈性部分運作。
 
 
2.  Read this article:    
Sketch a supply and demand curve for a patented asthma drug.  Assume there is a low and constant marginal cost of production, which is typically the case for pharmaceuticals.  Draw in the marginal revenue curve (you don’t have to be exact. I just want to make sure you get the general idea).  Show how much a profit maximizing monopolist would produce, and explain how this reduces consumer surplus. Show the reduction in consumer surplus on your graph.  If you like, you can use the excel spreadsheet I provide.  You can use excel to plot it, but you will have to figure out how to show (or explain) the deadweight loss of economic surplus.  
BONUS 5 pts:  What happens to elasticity of demand at the monopoly-profit maximizing level of production?  Can you explain why this is so?  (10pts)
 
In the case of patented asthma drug, the demand is price inelastic, as it is a necessary for asthma patients, and it is a need that is required in the long term. Marginal revenue curve has a gradient that is half of it for the demand curve. Thee profit maximizing monopolist produce at MR=MC, this price is above the average cost, and this ensures their maximized profit.
 
 
 
The most efficient situation is to produce output at P=MC, where the price represents how much buyers value the good and the marginal cost is the additional cost of producing that additional unit of the good. When this condition is meant, allocative efficiency is achieved. In this case of monopoly, there presents deadweight loss, represented by the triangle ABC in the graph above. And the triangle ABD, top half of the total deadweight loss is the loss of consumer surplus. Due to monopoly market structure, the output level is reduced, and price has increased.
 
 
In the situation of the monopoly profit maximizing level of production, where they produce at MC=MR, there is a theory of inverse elasticity pricing rule. A monopoly would never operate on the inelastic portion of the demand curve. This is because
MR= P + Q. ΔP/ ΔQ=P(1+ Q/P . ΔP/ΔQ)= P (1 + 1/ PED)
When profit maximization at MC=MR,
P(1+1/PED)=MC
(P-MC)/P=-1/PED
Elastic demand is when PED<-1, and inelastic demand is when -1<PED<0. When the demand is price inelastic, 1+1/PED <0, firms will not produce at the level that its loss money. Thus, monopoly never operates at the inelastic part of its demand.
 
 3.根據本作業所附的三篇文章中提供的信息,您的上述分析,以及您對市場和壟斷的了解,您認為哪種藥物供應最有效? (10pts)
有關在線壟斷的簡單概述,請參閱http://ingrimayne.saintjoe.edu/econ/Monopoly/Monopoly.html
 
我認為最有效的藥品供應方式將是鼓勵企業建立寡頭壟斷市場結構,市場上有少數公司供應藥品,而不是壟斷,歌手供應商不會面臨競爭。由于進入門檻較高,只有具有較強財務背景的公司才能投資加入該行業。藥品需要廣泛研究和開發藥物,這些藥物的成本非常高。此外,進行實驗和臨床試驗以及藥物專利將是非常昂貴的。通過寡頭壟斷市場結構,企業仍有機會以利潤最大化水平運營并獲得超常利潤。它與壟斷相比的好處是它鼓勵市場上更多的競爭。消費者在選擇產品時有更多的品種和選擇。這將激勵公司投資研發,以便從市場中獲得更高的利益。
 
政府應通過價格上限來規范行業,這可以確保消費者福利不會受到全面傷害,藥品的價格可以保持在合理的水平。這也降低了企業利用其市場力量的可能性。此外,政府還可以提供補貼以支持研發。由于研發有助于新藥開發成本最高的部分,在政府的財政支持下,企業將不再以昂貴的價格收費并開拓市場。他們將被鼓勵將節約成本轉嫁給消費者并增加消費者福利。
3. In light of the information provided in three articles attached to this assignment, your above analysis, and what you know about markets and monopolies, what do you think would be the most efficient way to supply pharmaceuticals? (10pts)
For simple overview of monopoly on-line, see http://ingrimayne.saintjoe.edu/econ/Monopoly/Monopoly.html
 
I think the most efficient way to supply pharmaceuticals will be encouraging firms to have an oligopoly market structure, with a few companies in the market supplying the pharmaceuticals rather than a monopoly with singer suppler facing no competition. Due to the high barrier to entry, only companies with strong financial backgrounds can invest to join the industry. And pharmaceuticals require extensive research and development of the drugs, which are very high in costs. Also, it will be very expensive to conduct experiments and clinical trials, as well as to patent the drugs. With the oligopoly market structure, companies still have opportunities to operate at profit maximizing level and earn supernormal profits. The benefit it has compared to monopoly is that it encourages more competition in the market. Consumer have more varieties and choices when choosing the product. This will incentivize companies to invest in R&D, in order to reap higher benefits from the markets.
 
The government should regulate the industry via price ceiling, this can ensure the consumer welfare is not fully hurt, the price of the drugs can be kept at a reasonable level. This also reduces the possibilities of firms exploiting their market power. Additionally, the government can also provide subsidy to support the R&D. Since R&D contributes to the highest cost portion for new drugs development, with the financial support of the government, the firms will no longer charge at extensive price and exploit the market. They will be encouraged to pass the cost-saving to consumers and increase the consumer welfare. 

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